In the evaluations of smart grid deployments that my teams have completed, we've noted the following about upstream metering:
1. Detects meter multiplier errors, meters with bad phases (commercial), and slow meters as well as theft. These revenue capture opportunities can be as large as theft detection;
2. One does not need AMI/smart grid to place meters upstream to find uncaptured revenues. All one needs is upstream meter data and a simple program to identify instances when the sum of the customer meters does not add up.